Salt-gradient solar ponds summary of U.S. Department of Energy sponsored research

Cover of: Salt-gradient solar ponds |

Published by The Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif .

Written in English

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  • Solar heating.

Edition Notes

Book details

StatementR.L. French ... [et al.] ; prepared for U.S. Department of Energy through an agreement with National Aeronautics and Space Administration by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.
SeriesJPL publication -- 84-74., NASA-CR -- 174183., NASA contractor report -- NASA CR-174183.
ContributionsFrench, R. L., United States. Dept. of Energy., Jet Propulsion Laboratory (U.S.)
The Physical Object
Pagination1 v.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15323500M

Download Salt-gradient solar ponds

Performance analysis of roof top salt gradient solar pond: Solar Energy Store Through Solar Pond [ kr. Sharma, Dr.G.D. Agarwal] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Over the last few years the use of solar energy has increased exponentially, but the problem of solar energy collection and thermal storage has arise and for this A solar pond is a simple and low cost solar Author: Dr.G.D.

Agarwal. The operational problems with salt-gradient solar ponds are discussed. The text describes the membrane-stratified solar ponds. A study of the household demand for conservation is presented.

A chapter is devoted to the construction of the insulation Edition: 1. Salt gradient solar pond (SGSP) is a low cost method of capturing and storing solar energy at relatively low temperatures.

A SGSP has mainly three layers of water filled in a pond in an order of salinity and relative mass from the bottom to the by: 2. The salt gradient solar pond consists of three layers. The top surface layer is known as the convection zone (CZ) that is a zone of constant temperature and salinity.

The thickness of this surface layer Salt-gradient solar ponds book from to m and is formed due to upward salt transport, surface. Hot water storage has been studied extensively, particularly for space and water heating, see, for instance, Lavan and Thompson [4], Cabelli [5] Jaluria and Gupta [6] and Guo and Wu [7] Salt-gradient solar ponds have also been studied because of their considerable promise for collection and long-term storage of solar energy as reviewed by Cited by: 1.

The other ponds are still in the proof of concept stage. In this chapter solar ponds are, therefore, classified in three categories, which will be discussed in the following order: the salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP), the shallow solar pond (SSP), and alternative solar ponds (ASPs).

III. SALT-GRADIENT SOLAR PONDS: BASICS A. Salt Selection. This paper presents the results of a simple mathematical model for predicting the ratio of the evaporation pond (EP) area to that of a Salt Gradient Solar Pond (SGSP) area.

The EP idea provides a very attractive method of salt recycling by evaporation, especially in areas of high rates of evaporation and low rates of rain as it is the case for North Africa. Pons is a pastiche of Holmes; the first book about Solar Pons was titled In Re: Sherlock Holmes. Like Holmes, Solar Pons has prodigious powers of observation and deduction, and can astound his companions by telling them minute details about people he has only just met, details that he proves to have deduced in seconds of observation.

Introduction Salinity gradient solar pond (SGSP) is an emerging cost-effective renewable thermal energy storage technique in which an artificial saline water body accumulates and store thermal energy from solar radiation.

A solar pond is a pool of saltwater which collects and stores solar thermal energy. The saltwater naturally forms a vertical salinity gradient also known as a "halocline", in which low-salinity water floats on top of high-salinity water. The layers of salt solutions increase in Salt-gradient solar ponds book with depth.

Below a certain depth, the solution has a uniformly high salt concentration. Summary This chapter contains sections titled: Salt‐Gradient Solar Ponds Pond Theory Applications of Ponds Solar Distillation Evaporation Direct Solar Drying Summary References Skip to Article Content Book Author(s): John A.

Duffie. Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin‐Madison, USA. Search for more papers by this author. Part of the Advances in Solar Energy book series (AISE, volume 4) Abstract.

Salinity-gradient solar ponds are of interest as a means for collecting solar energy and storing it as heat for such low-temperature applications as space heating, industrial water heating, and crop drying.

Joyce, A., and Valle, L. (), “A Salt Gradient Solar. Another use of the output from a salt gradient solar pond is to operate a low-temperature distillation unit to desalt seawater, such as MSF (see Chapter 8, Section Chapter 8 Section ). Such systems operate at a top temperature of 70°C, which can easily be obtained with a solar pond.

The new power-generating facility is a solar pond In order to take advantage of the heat stored in the salt gradient pool, Ormat engineers utilize a three-cycle (evaporation, drive, and. Salinity-Gradient, Solar Ponds-A Practial Manual, Vol 1,2, Solar Pond Design & Construction.

Xu H., editor. Swift, A.H.P., Project Director, Texas Solar Pond Consortium Final ReportAugust Submitted to Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Energy Research in. A salt gradient heat-preserving solar pond is built by clay; black ethylene-propylene-diene monomer waterproof coiled material, geomembrane or high density polyethylene spraying canvas and the like are laid at the bottom surface of the pond as the mat; a heat exchanging pipeline or an electric heating device is arranged m above the bottom.

It includes a brief description of solar pond technology in the context of energy storage, history, fundamentals; a classification of the different ponds used for capture and storage of solar energy; the fundamentals of the salinity gradient solar pond, describing the research efforts over recent decades; the design, construction, and the establishment of the salinity gradient, operation.

The salt gradient solar ponds comprise a hydraulic system subject: to processes at heat; and mass transfer. A brief description of the various models of solar ponds, their main objectives and their development, including a detailed review of the world wide activities in this field were given.

gradient solar pond (SGSP), membra ne solar pond and polymer gel layers solar pond. A SGSP is a pool of water about 1 -5 m d eep, which contains dis solved salts to establish a stab le density. A small-scale experiment for salinity-gradient solar pond has been constructed and operated at the Dead Sea area over a period of 3 months.

The pond has a volume of 5m3 with dimensions of (L, H, W) asand 1,25 meter respectively. The two parameters temperature and salinity concentration profiles were evaluated through the measurements of the solar pond with respect to time.

Constructal design of salt-gradient solar pond fields. International Journal of Energy Research, 40(10). Adrian Bejan is the author of 30 books and over peer-referred Sylvie Lorente.

Adjunct Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science. This project is a conceptual study of the application of Salt Gradient and Solar Pond (SGSP) technology to the crude oil production operation of the Double U Oil Company near Big Wells, Dimmit County, Texas.

The SGSP is intended to provide /sup 0/F process heat to an emulsion of crude oil and brine that comes from several producing wells, in. Heat extraction is done by recycling pond water: Hot water stored in the lower region (convective storage zone) of a salt‐gradient solar pond is pumped from the end of the pond, passed through a heat exchanger, and returned to the other end of the pond.

By the water circulation, a horizontal flow takes place in the convective storage zone. • The acre (3, m2) solar pond powering 20% of Bruce Foods Corporation's operations in El Paso, Texas is the second largest in the U.S.

It is also the first ever salt-gradient solar pond in the U.S. Solar pond technology has made tremendous progress in the last fifteen years. Saleh, J. Qudeiri, and M. Al-Nimr, “ Performance investigation of a salt gradient solar pond coupled with desalination facility near the Dead Sea,” Ene   • The Bhuj solar pond was conceived as a research and development project of TERI, which took over nine years to establish, to demonstrate the feasibility of using a salt gradient pond for industrial heating • It supplied totally about 15 million litres of hot water to the dairy at an average temperature of 75°C between September and.

A salt-gradient solar pond can provide heat at temperatures in excess of 90ºC (ºF). Such a pond provides built-in thermal storage of such large volume that heat can be collected in the summer and stored for use during the winter. Pioneering work on salt-gradient solar ponds has been done in Israel.

Salt gradient solar pond is one of the methods for absorbing and storing solar energy. This study investigates experimentally the performance of mixed medium at the lower convection zone of. English This report provides a brief but concise review of solar pond technologies and their potential for application within the military.

The report covers salt gradient solar ponds (SGSP), shallow solar ponds (SSP), saltless convecting solar ponds, gel ponds, viscosity stabilized ponds, and membrane ponds.

A solar pond may be used as a large area collector and for the storage of solar energy. The salt‐gradient solar pond is a body of saline water in which the concentration increases with depth.

This density gradient inhibits thermal convection, with the result that solar radiation reaching the lower region is trapped and the temperature is raised. from book Energy Storage Systems (pp) a salt-gradient solar pond is the. stability. the nonconvective gradient zone.

Because the transport across this layer. @article{osti_, title = {Heat extraction from a large solar pond}, author = {Wittenberg, L J and Etter, D E}, abstractNote = {The largest operational, salt-gradient solar pond in the United States, occupying m/sup 2/, was constructed during in Miamisburg, Ohio.

The heat from this solar pond, nearly GJ/y ( million Btu/y) is used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer. A salt gradient solar pond is a solar pond that consists of three main layers. The top layer is near ambient temperature and has a low salt content.

The bottom layer is hot – typically –°F (71–°C) – and is very salty. The important gradient zone separates these two. Salt gradient solar ponds are the ponds in which due to existence of saline and salt gradient layers, lower layers are denser and avoid occurring natural convection phenomenon so solar radiation.

Salt gradient solar pond has thermal performance parameters as rate of warm-up, highest achievable temperature, and cumulative heat collection.

All these are strongly influenced by the meteorology. Abstract. The mass and energy transfer processes of salt-gradient solar pond were developed into a finite element of computer model. The system represented by the model can be: (1) a non-convective salt-gradient solar pond for which the energy transfer takes place by conduction through the brine and the round beneath the pond; (2) a stratified three-zone solar pond consisting of upper and.

@article{osti_, title = {Optimization and preconceptual design of a 5 MWe salt-gradient solar pond power plant at Great Salt Lake}, author = {Drost, M K and Brown, L M and Barnhart, J S and Cavola, R G and Hauser, S G and Johnson, B M}, abstractNote = {The techniques used to optimize and design a solar salt-gradient pond (SSP) power plant for installation at the Great Salt Lake are.

Solar ponds is a generic term but, in the context of this report, the term solar pond refers specifically to saltgradient solar pond.

Several small research solar ponds have been built and successfully tested. Procedures for filling the pond, maintaining the gradient, adjusting the zone boundaries, and extracting heat were developed.

Site: Solar Power & Water ® Location: Wellton, AZ Project Application: Salt Gradient Solar Pond Containment Project Challenges. Sandy soil sub-grade required daily wetting and rolling - The project location and terrain in this part of Yuma County meant sub-grade was a sand type soil; this required the area to be wet and rolled daily to maintain compaction and stability.

A salt gradient solar pond (SGSP) coupled with a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system was investigated to desalinate water for reclamation of Walker Lake, a terminal saline lake in Northern Nevada. Two transparent floating elements and a continuous plastic cover were tested to determine their ability to suppress evaporation rates.

The salt-gradient solar pond is another expression of this motivation. The salt-gradient solar pond is a flat, uncovered, liquid solar collector, comprised of a thick body of water that is artificially divided into three layers.

The three layers are structured as follows.API POND ALGAEFIX Algae control, Effectively controls Green water algae, String or Hair algae and Blanketweed, Use as directed when algae blooms and as regular care out of 5 stars 2, $ $ 50 $ $Solar Power&Water® pond systems are designed and marketed to address fresh water shortages, agricultural drainage cleanup, and the need for low cost renewable energy.

The project scope included a salt gradient solar pond containing a flexible geosynthetic liner system, and with the help of a prime mover (engine), was designed to extract power.

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